Location: Southern Asia, between China and India
Geographic coordinates: 280 N, 840 E
Map references: Asia
Area: total : 147,181 sq km
land: 143,181 sq km
water: 4,000 sq km
Land boundaries: total: 2,929 km
border countries: China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km
Climate: varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south
Terrain: Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Kechana Kalan 70 m highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
Land use: arable land : 21.68%
permanent crops : 0.64%
other: 77.68% (2001)
Irrigated land: 11,350 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: severe thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought, and famine depending on the timing,intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons
Environment: deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives)
Current issues: contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions.
Environment-party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the sea, Ozone Layer Protection.
International agreements: Tropical Timber 83, Tropical TImber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation.
Geography Note: Landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world;s 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest-the world’s tallest – on the border with China

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